Find answers to recurring questions and concerns about Monero.
A collection of documents to help users interact with the Monero network and its components.
Guides and resources for developers.
One of the most complete resources about Monero. If you have a question which is not in this FAQ, you will likely find the answer on the Monero StackExchange.
The subreddit dedicated to help monero users. Basically community members helping each others. Use the search option.
Old and known resources with a good number of guides and howto's
The terminology used in Monero can be quite complex, for this reason we have the Moneropedia. A comprehensive list of terms that you often see and their explanation. If you don't know what a word means or you would like to have more info about it, just visit the Moneropedia. Some example of often searched terms are: node, fungibility, view key, pruning.
Monero is an open source community project. Meaning that there is no company who runs it and there is no CEO who hires people. Everything is built by volunteers or community-funded contributors who dedicate their time to the project. There are many ways to contribute:
Translations. It's easy and anybody speaking a language beside English can help. Translations happen mostly on Weblate.
Contact a Workgroup. Almost everything in Monero is managed by workgroups, which are groups of contributors (often lead by a coordinator) working on some specific aspect of the development. Some examples are: the localization workgroup (translations), the community workgroup, the GUI workgroup, the Outreach workgroup and so on. Workgroups are mostly independent and have their own structure. Contact the workgroup that interests you and ask how you can help. For a list of contacts see the Hangouts.
Do what you can do best. Are you a designer? Create Monero related images and spread them around. Are you a writer? Write about Monero. The only limit is your imagination. Find what you like to do and do it for Monero!
The Outreach workgroup wrote a useful article to help newcomers: Getting started with Monero.
More Info: 捐献
In past, you needed Bitcoin to buy Monero, but that's not the case anymore. You can directly trade Monero for national currencies (USD, EUR, GBP, etc) or other cryptocurrencies on many exchanges. Some require KYC (proof of identification); others do not, like decentralized exchanges. On this website is available a list of exchanges where it's possible to buy/sell Monero (XMR): 商家和服务.
More Info: How to Buy Monero (Monero Outreach)
More Info: 关于门罗币
ASICs are basically special computers created to do only one job, contrary to normal computers, which are made for general purpose. This characteristic makes ASICs very efficient for mining.
The problem is that these devices are very expensive and can be afforded by few. This leads to few entities owning a big amount of the hashrate of the network, which is a serious threat to the security of the network itself. For example, if big ASIC operators collude and manage to gain the majority of the hashrate of the network, they could arbitrarily reject transactions.
Monero fixes this problem by being ASIC-resistant: it uses an algorithm (randomx) that strongly reduces the efficiency of ASICs, making them not profitable to build. Miners can use common consumer hardware, which allows them to compete fairly. The Monero network is currently protected by thousands of miners using 'regular' computers. This results in a network much harder to attack, no miner having significant advantage over other miners (they all use more or less the same hardware).
The Monero community has created a series of videos called "Breaking Monero", where potential Monero vulnerabilities are explored and discussed. There are 14 videos, with each exploring a different subject. Check out the videos on monerooutreach.org.
More Info: Available on Spotify as podcast
After you have downloaded the Monero software (GUI and CLI alike), your antivirus or firewall may flag the executables as malware. Some antiviruses only warn you about the possible menace, others go as far as silently removing your downloaded wallet / daemon. This likely happens because of the integrated miner, which is used for mining and for block verification. Some antiviruses may erroneously consider the miner as dangerous software and act to remove it.
The problem is being discussed and solutions are being elaborated. In the meantime, if you get a warning from your antivirus, make sure the software you downloaded is legitimate (see the guides linked below), then add an exception for it in your antivirus, so that it won't get removed or blocked. If you need assistance, feel free to contact the community.
More Info: 在Windows上验证二进制文件(新手), 在Linux，Mac，或者Windows命令行上验证二进制文件(专家)
Monero is an Esperanto word which means 'coin'. Initially Monero was called 'Bitmonero', which translates to 'Bitcoin' in Esperanto. After the community decided to fork from the original maintainer, 'bit' was dropped in favour of simply 'Monero'.
Monero used to have 2 network upgrades (hard forks) a year, but this is not the case anymore. The choice of the biannual hard forks was taken in order to be able to introduce important consensus changes, which added privacy features and network-wide improvements (For example bulletproofs and CLSAG both required a hard fork) and avoid the ossification of the protocol. Recently, the biannual hard forks included changes to the PoW algorithm, to preserve ASIC-resistance.
The dev community and the Core Team agree that the protocol is stable and mature enough and biannual hard forks are not necessary anymore. Furthermore, the ecosystem around Monero has grown exponentially during the years and frequent protocol changes would be increasingly hard to coordinate, could be detrimental to the growth of the ecosystem and to the user experience. Cherry on the top, the new algorithm RandomX is ensuring long term ASIC-resistance, so regular changes are not needed anymore. Network upgrades will still be used to add important protocol improvements and consensus changes, but at a lower and less strict frequency (every 9-12 months). The last hard fork was on August 13th 2022.
More Info: A note on scheduled protocol upgrades
During the years the community has created a vast amount of informative content like articles and videos. Most of these videos are publicly available on platforms like YouTube. On this website we host a few videos that explain the fundamentals of Monero. To optimize their effectiveness, they should be viewed in sequence:
More Info: About supply auditability
No. Monero uses a completely non-interactive, non-custodial, and automatic process to create private transactions. By contrast for mixing services, users opt-in to participate.
Yes, you can, but you probably shouldn't. Importing an external blockchain is very resource intensive and forces you to trust the entity providing you with the blockchain. It's usually faster to download it the normal way: running a node and letting it synchronize with the other nodes in the network. If you really need to import an external blockchain, you can download one in the 'Downloads' page of this website. Follow the guide below if you are using Windows. If you are a linux user, you can use the tool "monero-blockchain-import", which is included in the archive when you download the GUI or CLI wallets. Start syncing the imported blockchain with this command: "monero-blockchain-import --input-file blockchain.raw".
More Info: Blockchain Bootstrap
Monero has a fixed emission rate, not a set maximum supply. Around May 2022, Monero's emission will drop to and permanently remain at 0.3 XMR per minute (0.6 XMR per block). This is approximately 1% inflation for the first year and will approach 0% inflation in future years. This tail emission allows for permanent incentives to secure Monero, even in the far future, while keeping inflation at a very low percent.
Miners process transactions on the Monero network by mining blocks. The miner of a block is paid the constant block reward of .6 XMR, and the transaction fees of the users who have transactions in that block. Monero has the block reward rather than relying solely on the transaction fees to give the miners incentive to keep securing the network with their hashrate, and keep transaction fees low.
The tail emission caused by this constant block reward creates an inflation rate of less than 1% which trends towards 0% over time. The fixed emission of the currency ensures human corruption cannot over inflate the supply. Keeping the network predictable, decentralized, and secure.
There are multiple wallets available for a vast number of platforms. On this website you'll find the wallets released by the Core Team (GUI and CLI) and a list of widely trusted and open source third party wallets for desktop and mobile.
More Info: 下载
You probably didn't. It's very hard to simply 'lose' your coins, since they are technically nowhere. Your coins 'live' on the blockchain and are linked to your account through a system of public and private keys secured by cryptography. That's why if you don't see your funds, it's probably because of a technical issue. Take a look at the 'Resources & Help' section at the top of this page for a list of useful resources that will help you identify and fix your problem.
Don't worry, your coins are safe. To be able to spend them you only have to download and run the latest Monero software. You can use the mnemonic seed you previously saved to restore your wallet at any time. Note that hard forks in Monero are scheduled and non-contentious. Which means no new coin is created.
Support for Tor is still in its infancies, but it's already possible to natively send transactions through the network and to run a Monero daemon on the Tor network. Better Tor and I2P integrations are in progress.
More Info: Connecting your local wallet to your own daemon over Tor
A full node requires a considerable amount of storage and could take a long time to download and verify the entire blockchain, especially on older hardware. If you have limited storage, a pruned node is recommended. It only stores 1/8th of unnecessary blockchain data while keeping the full transaction history. If plenty of storage is available, a full node is recommended but a pruned node still greatly contributes to the network and improves your privacy.
The Monero blockchain is always growing so there is no fixed size. As of 2022, the full blockchain is around 140-150GB. A pruned blockchain is about 50GB. Check out Moneropedia entry pruning to learn the difference between a full and a pruned blockchain.
When you download the blockchain, you are downloading the entire history of the transactions that happened in the Monero network since it was created. The transactions and the related data are heavy and the entire history must be kept by every node to ensure it's the same for everybody. Pruning a blockchain allows to run a node which keeps only 1/8 of not strictly necessary blockchain data. This results in a blockchain 2/3 smaller than a full one. Convenient for people with limited disk space. Check out the Moneropedia entries node and remote node for more details.
Yes. You don't need to download the blockchain to transact on the network. You can connect to a remote node, which stores the blockchain for you. All the most common wallets (including GUI and CLI) allow to use remote nodes to transact on the network. There are multiple ways to take advantage of this functionality. For example GUI and CLI offer a 'bootstrap node' feature, which allow people to download their own blockchain while using a remote node to immediately use the network. Ways to improve the usability of the Monero network are constantly being explored.
More Info: 怎么用图像化钱包（GUI）连接远程节点
Because new transactions have been recorded on the blockchain from the last time you opened your wallet, which needs to scan all of them to make sure non of those transaction is yours. This process is not necessary in a mymonero-style (openmonero) wallet, a central server (which could be managed by you) does this work for you.
Running a personal node is the safest way to interact with the Monero network, because you are in full control and you don't need to rely on third parties. From a general point of view running a node is not dangerous, but keep in mind that your ISP can see you are running a Monero node.
It's always advisable, especially for privacy-conscious users, to use a personal node when transacting on the network to achieve the highest rate of privacy. Some people for convenience prefer to use remote node which are not under their control (public nodes). The convenience of not having to deal with a personal copy of the blockchain comes at a cost: lessened privacy. A remote node operator is able to see from what IP address a transaction comes from (even if cannot see the recipient nor the amount) and in some extreme cases, can make attacks able to reduce your privacy. Some dangers can be mitigated by using remote nodes on the Tor or I2P networks or using a VPN.