Level of selection | Change in frequency of A_{1} allele (Δp) | Equilibrium values of p (Δp = 0) | Change in population mean phenotype () |
---|---|---|---|

Among families | |||

Full-siblings | (a + d)/2d | ||

Maternal half-siblings | (a + d − i)/2d | (V − cov_{A},_{A}_{O}_{(all)})/4 =V_{h}_{(dams)}/4 | |

Paternal half-siblings | (a + d + i)/2d | (V + cov_{A},_{A}_{O}_{(all)})/4 =V_{h}_{(sires)}/4 | |

Within families | |||

Full-siblings | (a + d)/2d | ||

Maternal half-siblings | (a + d)/2d + i/6d | V/2 + (_{A}V + cov_{A},_{A}_{O}_{(all)})/4 = V/2 + _{A}V_{h}_{(sires)}/4 | |

Paternal half-siblings | (a + d)/2d − i/6d | V/2 + (_{A}V − cov_{A},_{A}_{O}_{(all)})/4 = V/2 + _{A}V_{h}_{(dams)}/4 | |

Total (=Among + Within) | (a + d)/2d |

Responses to selection are shown for selection applied within and among full−sibling, maternal half-sibling and paternal half-sibling families. In each case, the response is given in terms of the change in the frequency of the

*A*_{1}allele (Δ*p*) and in terms of the change in mean phenotype () observed in offspring after one generation of selection. The values for the phenotypic response to selection will be in relation to the strength of selection applied (*i.e.*, in each case the value shown will be multiplied by the strength of selection, ). Also shown are equilibrium values of*p*, where Δ*p*= 0 (ignoring the trivial equilibria where*p*= 0 or 1).